Unmasking the Spread of Disinformation: How X Amplified Confusion in the Israel-Hamas Crisis

In the digital age, information spreads faster than wildfire, and the recent Israel-Hamas conflict is a prime example of this phenomenon. As graphic footage of abductions and military operations flooded social media platforms, including X (formerly known as Twitter), the world witnessed an avalanche of information, misinformation, and disinformation. This article delves into the impact of disinformation during the Israel-Hamas conflict and the role played by X in combating or amplifying it.

The Disinformation Deluge

From the outset of the conflict, graphic content proliferated across social media platforms, offering a real-time glimpse into the unfolding events. However, amidst these glimpses of reality, a troubling tide of disinformation emerged on X, muddying the waters of truth. Users found it increasingly challenging to discern fact from fiction as misleading posts and false narratives flooded their timelines.

Over the weekend, X did take action by flagging several posts as misleading or false, including a video supposedly depicting Israeli airstrikes against Hamas in Gaza. While these actions were commendable, they revealed a disturbing pattern. Thousands of users had already viewed and shared these misleading posts, with the most widely circulated ones only flagged as misleading after gaining significant traction. Shockingly, many posts containing identical videos and captions managed to evade X’s content moderation system, leaving users exposed to disinformation.

X’s Patchy Enforcement

X’s response to disinformation during the Israel-Hamas conflict left much to be desired. It was observed that X made cuts to its disinformation and election integrity teams shortly before the conflict escalated. These cuts came in conjunction with the removal of headlines from links, making it challenging to distinguish external links from regular photo shares on the platform. These changes exacerbated the challenges in combating disinformation.

Before X’s transformation under Elon Musk’s ownership, the company had dedicated substantial resources to combatting manipulated and misleading information. However, following Musk’s takeover and the platform’s renaming, there was a significant reduction in staff dedicated to combating misinformation. Musk openly criticized the company’s previous work with the U.S. government on Covid-19 disinformation, setting a new course for the platform’s content moderation strategy.

Under Musk’s leadership, X prioritized user-driven content tagging with Community Notes, a feature previously known as Birdwatch. While this feature aimed to provide crowdsourced context to posts, a September study by the EU highlighted a concerning trend. Despite the presence of Community Notes, disinformation remained more discoverable on X compared to other social media platforms and garnered higher engagement, relatively speaking.

The Language Barrier

Alex Goldenberg, an analyst at the Network Contagion Research Institute, emphasized the challenge of addressing non-English disinformation on X. He noted that misinformation and disinformation in English often receive more attention and priority, while content in other languages, including Arabic, is frequently overlooked. Goldenberg also highlighted an alarming trend of recycled videos and photos from past conflicts being intentionally associated with the Israel-Hamas conflict, further muddying the digital landscape.

User Perception and Impact

Users of X have been quick to notice the consequences of changes in content moderation. Some have unwittingly shared disinformation, reflecting on how X’s reputation has changed under Musk’s leadership. Paul Bernal, an IT law professor at the University of East Anglia in England, lamented how the platform had transitioned from a source of relatively accurate and trustworthy real-time information during crises to a hub of uncertainty.

The impact of disinformation on X was exemplified when a British politician shared a video purportedly from a BBC correspondent. This misleading video gained traction until it was revealed that it was not, in fact, from a BBC journalist. This incident highlighted the challenges users face in distinguishing between authentic and manipulated content on the platform.

Verification Woes

While government verification now grants certain accounts a silver checkmark, the verification process for notable individuals and reporters has been phased out in favor of paid Twitter Blue verification. This shift has made it even more difficult for users to determine the authenticity of both the messenger and the content. Alex Goldenberg pointed out that this change has significant implications for the spread of disinformation on the platform.

Hamas’s Digital Reach

Despite being banned from most social media platforms, including X, Hamas has continued to share propaganda videos on Telegram. Some of these videos, including those from the recent assault on Israel, find their way onto X. This digital crossover has tangible real-world effects, as tensions in the region can trigger a rise in hate crimes targeting the Jewish community outside the conflict zone.

Musk’s Influence

Elon Musk, with his massive following of 160 million users, has been an influential figure on X. Paid verification purportedly boosts a user’s posts and comments on the platform, and some posts tagged as misleading have come from these verified users. Musk himself has amplified such posts, particularly related to the conflict in Ukraine and more recently in Israel. However, this influence is not without controversy, as Musk has been criticized for promoting accounts that have previously engaged in anti-Semitic rhetoric.


The Israel-Hamas conflict underscored the power and peril of information dissemination in the digital age. X, formerly Twitter, found itself at the center of this storm, struggling to combat the relentless spread of disinformation. While the platform did take some measures to address the issue, the effectiveness of its efforts was questionable at best.

As the digital landscape continues to evolve, platforms like X face the immense responsibility of ensuring the accuracy and integrity of the information they host. The battle against disinformation is ongoing, and its consequences extend far beyond the confines of the virtual world. As users, we must remain vigilant and critical, knowing that the truth is a precious commodity in the age of information.



FAQs about Disinformation in the Israel-Hamas Conflict

1. What is disinformation, and how does it relate to the Israel-Hamas conflict?

Disinformation refers to the deliberate spread of false or misleading information. In the context of the Israel-Hamas conflict, disinformation involves intentionally misleading narratives about the conflict, which can confuse the public and impact perceptions of the events.

2. What role did X (formerly Twitter) play in disseminating disinformation during the conflict?

X served as a major platform where disinformation related to the Israel-Hamas conflict spread rapidly. Despite efforts to combat false content, many misleading posts managed to circulate widely on the platform.

3. How did X attempt to address the issue of disinformation during the conflict?

X flagged several posts as misleading or false and made efforts to remove disinformation. However, the effectiveness of these actions was limited, as many misleading posts had already gained substantial traction.

4. Why did X make cuts to its disinformation and election integrity teams before the conflict escalated?

Under the ownership of Elon Musk, X underwent significant changes in its content moderation strategy. Staff reductions were made to teams dedicated to addressing misinformation, reflecting a shift in the platform’s approach to content moderation.

5. What is the Community Notes feature on X, and did it help combat disinformation?

Community Notes, previously known as Birdwatch, is a user-driven content tagging feature on X. While it aimed to provide context to posts, a study found that disinformation was more discoverable on X compared to other platforms, despite its presence.

6. How did language barriers impact the handling of disinformation on X during the Israel-Hamas conflict?

Analysts noted that X often prioritized addressing English-language disinformation while overlooking content in other languages, such as Arabic. This contributed to the spread of disinformation in multiple languages.

7. How did the changes in verification on X affect the spread of disinformation?

The shift from government verification to paid Twitter Blue verification for notable individuals and reporters made it challenging for users to determine the authenticity of content and its source, exacerbating the disinformation problem.

8. Why is the digital reach of Hamas concerning in the context of disinformation during the conflict?

Hamas, despite being banned from most social media platforms, continued to share propaganda videos on platforms like Telegram. Some of these videos found their way onto X, contributing to the spread of misleading narratives.

9. How did Elon Musk’s influence on X impact the handling of disinformation?

Elon Musk’s significant following on X gave him considerable influence. However, his promotion of accounts that had engaged in controversial rhetoric, including anti-Semitic posts, raised concerns about the spread of disinformation.

10. What lessons can we learn from the Israel-Hamas conflict regarding the role of social media in disseminating disinformation?

The conflict highlighted the urgent need for social media platforms to improve content moderation and combat disinformation effectively. It also emphasized the responsibility of users to critically assess information and seek reliable sources.


  1. Disinformation
  2. Israel-Hamas Conflict
  3. X (formerly Twitter)
  4. Elon Musk
  5. Content Moderation
  6. Community Notes
  7. Language Barriers
  8. Digital Propaganda
  9. Verification
  10. Social Media Influence


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